General situation of distribution development of t

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Overall overview of the development of foreign logistics industry distribution

foreign countries started relatively early in logistics and logistics distribution research, and have made great achievements at present. For example, the United States, Japan and some developed countries in Europe have basically built logistics distribution systems at different levels

(L) the development of modern logistics distribution in the United States

since the 1960s, the rationalization of goods distribution has been widely valued in the United States. In order to generate benefits in the field of circulation, American enterprises have taken the following measures: first, the old warehouse has been changed into a distribution center; The second is to introduce computer management network, implement standardized operation for loading, unloading, handling and storage, and improve operation efficiency; Third, chain stores jointly set up distribution centers to promote the growth of chain stores' benefits. There are many kinds of distribution centers in American chain stores, mainly including batch type, retail type and warehouse type. The first is batch distribution. This type of distribution center is mainly managed by computer. The business department obtains the order information of the member store through the computer and sends the order instruction to the manufacturer and the storage and transportation department in time. The second is the retail type, taking the distribution center of Wal Mart in the United States as a typical example. This type of distribution center is generally built solely by a retailer, which is designed to provide goods on time for the company's chain stores to ensure the stable operation of each store. The third is warehousing. The food distribution center of Fleming company is a typical warehousing distribution center. Its main task is to accept the entrusted business of the independent grocers alliance. For several research teams of the alliance in the region, together with Liu Zhaoping's team and Ningbo Moxi Technology Co., Ltd., it cooperates and innovates to develop a special graphene composite powder and slurry franchise store for heavy corrosion protection, which is responsible for goods distribution

(2) the development of modern logistics distribution in Japan

in Japan, retail industry is one of the first industries to establish an advanced logistics system. As a new retail industry, convenience stores have grown rapidly, and now they have spread all over Japan, affecting other forms of retail business in Japan. This new retail industry needs to use new logistics technology to ensure the smooth supply of various goods in the store. Therefore, the logistics distribution in Japan has the following characteristics: first, the distribution channels are developed. Many Japanese wholesalers used to position themselves as the special agent of a specific manufacturer, which was only allowed to operate the products of one manufacturer. In order to ensure the effective supply of goods, many Japanese logistics companies have to rationalize the old distribution channels to better integrate with the distribution of upstream or downstream companies. Second, frequent and small batch purchase. A large part of the service demand of Japanese logistics and distribution enterprises comes from convenience stores, which rely on small batch of frequent purchase. Only by using advanced logistics system can chain convenience stores be developed, because it enables small batch of frequent purchase to be realized. Third, logistics distribution reflects the trend of collectivization and mixed loading. The increasingly flexible component design has benefited the electronic, electrical and automotive markets a lot. The common and mixed cargo distribution has transformed the original decentralized commodity logistics divided according to different manufacturers and different types of goods into a polymer commodity logistics that mixes the products of different manufacturers and different types of goods, so as to give full play to the batch benefits of commodity logistics and greatly improve the loading rate of distribution vehicles. Fourth, cooperative logistics distribution. In Japan, there is basically a long-term logistics cooperation relationship between production enterprises, retail enterprises, integrated trading houses and integrated logistics companies. And with the internationalization of Japanese industrial production, this cooperative relationship has also extended to foreign countries. Fifth, government planning plays an important role in the development of modern logistics distribution

(3) the development of modern logistics distribution in Europe

in European countries, especially Germany, logistics distribution refers to the activity of delivering the allocated goods to the consignee after the distribution and distribution of goods at the logistics site according to the order requirements of users. After the Second World War, the logistics and distribution industry in Germany gradually developed with the rise of modern science and technology and the rapid development of economy. Especially in the past 10 years, German logistics distribution has abandoned the traditional distribution mode of goods from origin to destination, and basically formed a modern mode of goods from origin to distribution center, and from distribution center (sometimes through more than one distribution center) to final customers. Throughout Germany, it can be said that German logistics distribution has formed a complete operation system with final demand as the guide, modern transportation and high-tech information network as the bridge, and reasonably distributed distribution centers as the hub. When summarizing the experience of the development of German retail industry, it can be seen that Germany attaches great importance to planning the distribution center according to the scale and characteristics of chain operation, and often takes into account the construction layout of the distribution center while building the store

according to the author's analysis, the main reasons for the rapid development of logistics distribution industry in developed countries are:

first, relying on high technology

distribution in developed countries is based on advanced logistics technology in transportation technology, storage technology, loading and unloading technology, goods inspection technology, packaging technology, circulation and processing technology, as well as information processing technology closely related to all links of logistics. Distribution centers are completely managed by computers. In the warehouse, from the sorting and coding of goods when entering the warehouse to entering the designated warehouse for loading and distribution vehicles, all operations are automated. All links of some distribution centers, including inventory, order processing and goods distribution, are tracked and controlled by computer networks with satellite communication as the carrier. For example, Wal Mart chain company in the United States is the largest chain company in the United States. The company is equipped with professional personnel and highly automated distribution equipment, which represents the highest level of logistics management and technology in the United States at present. The distribution center in Japan has a high level of mechanization and automation, and the sorting system is completely controlled by computers

second, focus on economies of scale

distribution is a movement of economies of scale, and the life of distribution lies in scale. The practice of developed countries tells us that scale operation produces scale benefits. Scale operation with unified purchase, unified distribution and unified management can obtain scale benefits, enjoy batch discounts, reduce circulation costs and social transaction costs, sell goods below the social average price, obtain reasonable commercial profits and win competitive strength. The strong strength of distribution centers is one of the reasons why the distribution system in developed countries can be successfully implemented in the whole society Waves are important reasons. Take Japan, where the distribution industry is relatively developed, as an example. A distribution center of Japanese chain enterprises is responsible for the distribution of more than 70 stores. Ryoshi company is Japan's largest processed food wholesaler. In 1997, it has 46 business offices and 53 distribution centers in Japan, of which 7 are regional distribution centers. This was built with a total investment of 4billion yen in 1995, and has large-scale facilities dedicated to circulation and processing services

third, based on flexible and diverse forms

at present, distribution is adopted by most industries in developed countries, and the form is becoming more and more perfect. For example, the "worry free operation mode for users" of Swedish bearing manufacturers and the "Kanban" inventory free supply mode of Japanese steelmakers. For example, the United States mainly has the following different types of goods distribution modes: ① logistics distribution mode based on retail industry; ② Logistics distribution mode based on warehouse storage and transportation industry; ③ A joint distribution mode dominated by wholesalers

overall overview of the development of domestic logistics distribution industry

the next three years

before the 1970s, the word "logistics" was hardly used in China's economic research, but the operation of various links of logistics had existed in various fields of the national economy for a long time. Since the early 1980s, the article "a brief talk on Logistics" by Professor Wang Zhitai of Beijing Institute of materials and materials has been published in the material economy research newsletter, logistics has gradually received attention and attention in China. The circulation practice since the 1990s has proved that distribution is a better way of logistics. The material departments in many cities in China have set up distribution centers, and distribution has been greatly developed. The functions of different models of experimental machines are different. In this way, the traditional circulation mode and mode have been completely changed. The implementation of door-to-door delivery provides production enterprises with urgently needed products. By building a new circulation mode combining agency, distribution and chain, it improves the efficiency of circulation and provides users with faster and convenient services

with the gradual warming of logistics fever, urban logistics distribution industry has also been increasingly valued and developed. In recent years, many large and medium-sized cities in China have begun to build logistics centers and distribution centers, the logistics infrastructure has been gradually improved, and the overall logistics technology level has also begun to be improved. Shenzhen is a typical example. At present, the overall layout of Shenzhen Logistics is to focus on the construction of six logistics industrial parks, among which the logistics parks in Yantian port area, the logistics park in western port area and the airport aviation logistics park provide services for international logistics. Logistics in the service area include: South China International Logistics Center, Pinghu logistics park, Shenzhen post sub barge transfer center. Sungang Qingshuihe logistics park mainly provides urban distribution services. At the same time, multinational companies such as UPS, TNT, maizrsk, Sasakawa emergency and Taiwan Dongyuan have settled in the park. However, due to the historical reasons of our country, the idea of emphasizing production, neglecting circulation, emphasizing business flow and neglecting logistics has been formed for a long time. The development of distribution is still immature at this stage, and there are many problems, which are highlighted in the following two aspects:

(L) the core role of distribution service is difficult to play. The core role of distribution is service. At this stage, the distribution mode is basically decentralized distribution based on individual combat. The distribution dispatching center has not played its due role in organization, coordination, balance, management and so on. Since logistics distribution is mainly carried out by professional companies alone, and the current logistics enterprises have a narrow business periphery (for example, Shenzhen Yantian port logistics center only provides the transfer and storage functions of domestic goods export, and almost does not involve the city's distribution business), there are few contents that can provide logistics distribution services, which can not meet the needs of users for a variety of services

(2) the modernization of distribution operation process is low. At present, the application of computers in distribution operations in China is relatively low, which is limited to the management of daily things. For many important decision-making issues in logistics, such as the location of distribution centers, cargo allocation schemes, the best route of transportation, optimal inventory control, etc., they are still in the state of semi-human decision-making, and the development of logistics information systems that adapt to specific operations lags behind

to sum up, the development of China's logistics distribution industry is still in its infancy, and there is still a large gap with the advanced level of foreign countries. We need to combine our national conditions, strive to catch up, and integrate into the trend of the great development of international economy, trade and logistics. Only in this way can the international competitiveness of China's logistics industry be truly improved. (end)

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